All articles for the topic: Syria


Aga Khan Foundation

Established in 1967, the Aga Khan Foundation (AKF) brings together human, financial and technical resources to address the challenges faced by the poorest and most marginalised communities in the w

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Aga Khan Agency for Habitat

The Aga Khan Agency for Habitat’s (AKAH) goal is that people live in safe, sustainable, and resilient habitats with the opportunity to thrive, whether in a remote mountain village, a town, or a den

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European Commission DG ECHO - Ethiopia: EU boosts aid in response to El Niño drought [Flickr]

CC&E Nexus Brief: The El Niño Phenomenon and Related Impacts 

This brief focuses on El Niño–Southern Oscillation phenomenon and the 2015/2016 El Niño event in particular, the environmental and societal impacts and effects of which will extend well into 2017.

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wfp food uncertainty 2015 abeer etefa - climate adaptation.

Food in an uncertain future

This report sets out the risks to food security in the Middle East and North Africa from climate change, and how these vulnerabilities interact with other key trends and sources of risk.

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syria weadapt 40 - climate adaptation.

Climate and Syria

During 2015 the media started connecting climate change with the conflict in Syria and subsequent refugee movements across Europe. This report looks at their appraoch and whether they got it right.

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505994d94d025enpi-cbc-med 0 - climate adaptation.


The multilateral cross-border cooperation "Mediterranean Sea Basin Programme" is part of the new European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and of its financing instrument (European Neighbourhood and Part

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4e1c547694eb1ICARDA 0 - climate adaptation.

International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas

The International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) was established in 1977 and is one of the 15 centers strategically located all over the world and supported by the Consu

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504767936cee4syria-climate-change-image - climate adaptation.

NAPA – Syria

The primary goal of the NAAP process is to identify priority measures to adapt to climate change and climate variability, and develop them into project based activities that can address...

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Case Study: Tal Hadya

Wheat growing in Tal Hadya: Photo ICARDA

Tel Hadya is a water scarce area in the North of Syria. During the last 30 years droughts have frequently led to crop failure...

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Mitigation: Syria intends to implement mitigation activities across sectors. Within the energy sector Syria intends to expand renewable energy production to meet existing energy needs while reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Climate smart agriculture, rehabilitation of degraded lands, and sustainable forest management will be implemented to manage land use related emissions. The transport sector could reduce emissions through improved urban transportation, efficiency, and fuel. Industry emissions could be reduced through greater use of renewables and regulations on production processes. Within the waste sector encouraging recycling, using waste for energy, and improving the waste management system overall could reduce emissions. Finally, within housing the establishment of standards, reductions in rural-urban migration, and green architecture could contribute to mitigation. Adaptation: Syria's adaptation priorities include water resource management, biodiversity conservation, combatting land degradation and desertification, integrated coastal zone management, and the development of early warning systems. Specific activities include increasing the efficiency of water use, mitigating dust storm impacts, and increase the amount of natural protected areas in Syria. Syria has expressed a need for external technical, financial, and capacity building support to achieve its mitigation and adaptation goals. International Climate and Environmental Commitments: The Paris Agreement (Accession), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Party), Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Party), United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (Party), Convention on Biological Diversity (Party), Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (Party), Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Party)


Syria is a developing state facing significant challenges related to conflict and insecurity, economic growth, provision of public services, and environmental degradation. Syria is facing internal and external conflict, and associated actions by the international community, that threaten human life as well as livelihoods and economic development. These challenges are further exacerbated by Syria's economic dependency on oil production, issues with natural resource misuses, water shortages and misallocation, pollution, deforestation, overgrazing, and soil erosion. These environmental issues are likely to be exacerbated by climate change, which is causing changes in precipitation, dropping water levels, drought, heatwaves, forest fires, sandstorms, and desertification.



International Commitments and Reporting

Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)

Nationally Determined Contribution Under the Paris Agreement -

NDC Monitoring and Reporting

World Bank’s Climate Knowledge Portal -
ClimateWatch Profile -
NDC Partnership Page -

SDG Voluntary National Review

Syria has not yet completed a Voluntary National Review, but a Review is expected by 2020 and will be available here -

National SDG Monitoring and Reporting

World Bank Overview -
UNDP's Open SDG Data Hub -

NDCs, SDGs, and Climate Change

NDC Partnership Dashboard on NDCs and relation to the SDGs and Climate Change Vulnerability -

Emissions Data

Syria does not currently have a dynamic online emissions tracking platform, but national emissions reporting can be found within this report -
The ClimateWatch profile may provide one more recent assessment of greenhouse gas emissions -

Sendai and Hyogo Frameworks

National Progress Report on the Implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action -
Index for Risk Management Country Profile -

National Coordination and Reporting

National Action Plans

Environmental Affairs Law No.50 of 2002 -

National Strategies Related to International Mechanisms

National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan Part 1 -
National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan Part 2 -

National Regulations/Policies

Resolution No. 24/Tof 2008 on environmental tourism -
11th Five-Year Plan 2011-2015 -
Law no 32 on the electric sector -
Energy Conservation Law (Law no 3 of 2009) -
Legislative Decree No. 30 of 1964 on the protection of aquatic livings -
Law No. 6 of 2018 on Forestry -
Resolution No. 3661/W of the Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation declaring the forests located in the zone of Mar Mousa Alhabashy as protected forests -
Legislative Decree No. 114 of 2011 establishing a fund to mitigate the effects of drought and natural disasters -
Legislative Decree No.29 of 2012 on Agricultural Land Reclamation -
Legislative Decree No.59 of 2005 regulating agricultural production -
Law No. 31 of 16 November 2005 on Water Legislation -
Decree No. 86/T of 2006 establishing the Directorate of National Project on Shifting to Modern Irrigation and defining its tasks -

Reviews of National Legislation and Policy

London School of Economics: National Climate Legislation -


Selected Relevant Sources of Climate Related Funding

Climate Funds Update -
OECD Climate Change -
OECD Investment for Green Growth -

Multilateral Funders

Syria receives climate funding from the Islamic Development Bank and the Global Environment Facility, among others.

Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Planning

Vulnerability/Adaptation Capacity Data

Notre Dame's Global Adaptation Initiative Vulnerability/Readiness Climate Change Index -
Environmental Performance Index -

Natural Disaster/Hazards

PreventionWeb -
Drought vulnerability in the Arab region: case study - Drought in Syria, ten years of scarce water (2000-2010) -

Energy Supply and Demand

Energy Statistics -

Land Use

Impact of the Syrian refugee crisis on land use and transboundary freshwater resources -

Economic Development/Quality of Life and Livelihoods

Resilient Livelihoods for Agriculture and Food and Nutrition Security in Areas Affected by the Syria Crisis -
Special Report: FAO/WFP Crop and Food Security Assessment Mission to the Syrian Arab Republic -
Monitoring food security in countries with conflict situations -

Summaries of Programming and Priorities

Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment in Syria's first National Communication -

Case Studies

weADAPT Case Studies

weADAPT Entries -

Islamic Development Bank Reports

IsDB Country Page -

Climate, Climate Change, and Environmental Data

Natural Disaster/Hazards Data

ThinkHazard -

Energy Supply and Demand Data

Renewable Energy Mapping -

Land Use Data

FAOStat -

Weather/Meteorological Data

World Meteorological Organization Profile -

<span class="isdb-tag">Biodiversity</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Climate Smart Agriculture</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Deforestation</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Desertification</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Reforestation and/or Afforestation</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Bioenergy</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Solar Power</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Wind Power</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Water Scarcity</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Climate Services</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Hydrometeorological Hazards</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Coastal Management and Planning</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Rural Development</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Agriculture Fishing Forestry Sector</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Conflict and Insecurity</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Economic Diversification</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Energy and Extractive Sector</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Internal Displacement</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Conflict and Insecurity </span>

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