All articles for the topic: Lebanon

Addressing the land degradation-migration nexus thumbnail

Addressing the Land Degradation–Migration Nexus

A review of existing evidence, good practices, and policy recommendations on the complex interrelationships between migration and desertification, land degradation and drought.

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wfp food uncertainty 2015 abeer etefa - climate adaptation.

Food in an uncertain future

This report sets out the risks to food security in the Middle East and North Africa from climate change, and how these vulnerabilities interact with other key trends and sources of risk.

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53849ee1b7731screen-shot-2014-05-27-at-15 - climate adaptation.

National Economic, Environment and Development Study (NEEDS)

National Economic, Environment and Development Study (NEEDS) for Climate Change Project

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The multilateral cross-border cooperation "Mediterranean Sea Basin Programme" is part of the new European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and of its financing instrument (European Neighbourhood and Part

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Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP)

LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning) is a powerful, versatile software system for integrated energy planning and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation assessment.

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beirut - climate adaptation.

Case Study: Beirut

Mobile water trucks in Beirut

Greater Beirut is the largest urban area in Lebanon, with around 2 million inhabitants in the built up area. It is a densely populated...

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Mitigation: Unconditionally, Lebanon has committed to a 15% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, from the business as usual scenario, by 2030. This involves 15% of power and heat demand to be met using renewable energy sources, and 3% energy demand reduction through efficiency improvements. With external support Lebanon could commit to a 30% overall emissions reduction, 20% renewable energy supply, and a 10% reduction of demand, by 2030. Adaptation: Within Lebanon, Climate change is expected to threaten coastal communities, place pressure on existing electricity infrastructure, and further restricts water resources. In order to manage these mounting pressures, and reduce climate change's impact on economic development, Lebanon is working to mainstream climate adaptation into electricity infrastructure, tourism, infrastructure generally, and public health. Specific activities include biodiversity assessments and planning, promoting agricultural best practices, planting trees, improving water supply systems, increasing water reuse, improving irrigation, and increasing storage for water. International Climate and Environmental Commitments: The Paris Agreement (Signed), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Party), Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Party), United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (Party), Convention on Biological Diversity (Party), Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (Party), Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Party)


Lebanon's NDC-SDG Connections

Lebanon is particularly vulnerable to climate change. Lebanon is still developing as a middle-income country, however despite recent economic progress and a growing service sector the country is facing challenges with poverty and inequality, as well as regional insecurity, political instability, and increasing numbers of refugees. Lebanon is already experiencing issues with food insecurity, water scarcity, and dust and sand storms. Climate change is likely to worsen these environmental challenges, as well as threaten biodiversity and cause issues within coastal regions, which have high population density in Lebanon.





International Commitments and Reporting

Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)

Intended Nationally Determined Contribution Under the Paris Agreement -

NDC Monitoring and Reporting

World Bank Country Factsheet on Intended NDCs -
World Bank’s Climate Knowledge Portal -
ClimateWatch Profile -
NDC Partnership Page -

SDG Voluntary National Review

2018 Voluntary National Review -

National SDG Monitoring and Reporting

The platform for a non-governmental Council for achieving the SDGs in Lebanon can be found here -
World Bank Overview -
UNDP's Open SDG Data Hub -

NDCs and SDGs

Mapping of NDC-SDG Connections -

NDCs, SDGs, and Climate Change

NDC Partnership Dashboard on NDCs and relation to the SDGs and Climate Change Vulnerability -
Biennial Update Report to the UNFCCC -

Emissions Data

Lebanon does not currently have a dynamic online emissions tracking platform, but national emissions reporting can be found within this report -
The ClimateWatch profile may provide one more recent assessment of greenhouse gas emissions -

Sendai and Hyogo Frameworks

Sendai Framework Data Readiness Review Report -
National Progress Report on the Implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action -

National Coordination and Reporting

National Appropriate Mitigation Actions

No Action to date -

National Strategies Related to International Mechanisms

Convention to Combat Desertification National Action Programme -
National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan -

National Regulations/Policies

National Social Development Strategy of Lebanon -
Law No. 444 of 2002 on Environmental Protection -
National Energy Efficiency Action Plans (2011-2015, 2016-2020) -
National Renewable Energy Action Plan 2016-2020 -
Ministry of Agriculture Strategy 2015-2019 -
National Forest Program 2015-2025 -
National Strategy for Conservation and Management of Plant Genetic resources for Food and Agriculture in Lebanon 2015-2035 -
Law No. 92 of 2010 on Preservation of burnt green spaces and ban to change their land use -
National Water Sector Strategy 2010-2020 -
Water Law No. 77 of 2018 -
Lebanon's Marine Protect Area Strategy: Supporting the management of important marine habitats and species in Lebanon -
Programme of Modernization, Rehabilitation, and Development of Marine Fisheries and Aquaculture in Lebanon -

National Platform

Lebanon does not have any national reporting platforms, but relevant data can be found on the Ministry of Environment Climate Change platform -

Reviews of National Legislation and Policy

London School of Economics: National Climate Legislation -


Key Areas of Climate Investment

Financing water supply improvements -
Financing improvements to wastewater management systems -
Financing sustainable management of coastal and marine ecosystems -
Financing urban resilience, particularly among refugee communities -
Financing climate smart agriculture -
Financing the conservation of mountain forest landscapes -
Financing energy efficiency -

Selected Relevant Sources of Climate Related Funding

Climate Funds Update -
OECD Climate Change -
OECD Investment for Green Growth -

Multilateral Funders

Lebanon receives climate funding from the World Bank, the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery, the Adaptation Fund, the Islamic Development Bank, and the Global Environment Facility, among others.

Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Planning

Vulnerability/Adaptation Capacity Data

Notre Dame's Global Adaptation Initiative Vulnerability/Readiness Climate Change Index -
Ministry of the Environment: Vulnerability and Adaptation -
Environmental Performance Index -

Natural Disaster/Hazards

Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery -
PreventionWeb -

Energy Supply and Demand

Lebanon: Derisking Renewable Energy Investment -
Key Energy Statistics -

Land Use

Ministry of the Environment: Forest and Land Use -
Country Study on Status of Land Tenure, Planning and Management in Oriental Near East Countries: Case of Lebanon -
Land Cover Change over the Last 40 Years in Lebanon -

Economic Development/Quality of Life and Livelihoods

Improving Forest-Based Livelihoods in Lebanon -
Enhancing the Livelihood and Food Security of Syrian Refugees in Lebanon -

Summaries of Programming and Priorities

Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment in Lebanon's Third National Communication -

Case Studies

weADAPT Case Studies

weADAPT Entries -

Islamic Development Bank Reports

IsDB Country Page -

Climate, Climate Change, and Environmental Data

Natural Disaster/Hazards Data

ThinkHazard -

Energy Supply and Demand Data

Renewable Energy Mapping -

Land Use Data

FAOStat -

Weather/Meteorological Data

World Meteorological Organization Profile -

<span class="isdb-tag">Biodiversity</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Food Insecurity</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Reforestation and/or Afforestation</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Energy Efficiency</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Water Scarcity</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Hydrometeorological Hazards</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Coastal Management and Planning</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Conflict and Insecurity</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Internal Displacement</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Migration </span>

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