All articles for the topic: Bahrain

wfp food uncertainty 2015 abeer etefa - climate adaptation.

Food in an uncertain future

This report sets out the risks to food security in the Middle East and North Africa from climate change, and how these vulnerabilities interact with other key trends and sources of risk.

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Mitigation: Bahrain focuses its mitigation efforts on activities that have development co-benefits, with a particular focus on economic diversification to reduce dependence on oil revenues. Specific areas of focus include carbon capture and storage, renewable energy, energy efficiency, and improvements that foster growth in the tourism, manufacturing, and financial sectors. Adaptation: Bahrain's vulnerability to climate change requires timely action to build resilience and improve disaster risk response. Pure adaptation priorities include addressing sea level rise, water scarcity, and food security, through improved management and infrastructure interventions. Adaptation activities with mitigation co-benefits include water conservation, sustainable urban planning, and what Bahrain refers to as blue carbon (supporting and growing resources like mangroves and seagrass beds). International Climate and Environmental Commitments: The Paris Agreement (Party), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Party), Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Party), United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (Party), Convention on Biological Diversity (Party), Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (Party), Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Party)


Bahrain's NDC-SDG Connections

Bahrain is an archipelago of low-laying islands, and a small island developing state, facing challenges with desertification, drought and a lack of freshwater resources, and dust storms. Bahrain is vulnerable to both the physical impacts of climate change and the financial impacts of climate change mitigation, as low oil prices have been economically costly for the country's oil-dependent revenue. Adaptation, adaptation with mitigation co-benefits, and mitigation with development co-benefits are priorities for Bahrain as it pursues economic development within its existing geographic and resource-related constraints.





International Commitments and Reporting

Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)

Nationally Determined Contribution Under the Paris Agreement -

NDC Monitoring and Reporting

World Bank Country Factsheet on Intended NDCs -
World Bank’s Climate Knowledge Portal -
ClimateWatch Profile -
NDC Partnership Page -

SDG Voluntary National Review

2018 Voluntary National Review -

National SDG Monitoring and Reporting

Bahrain Sustainable Development -
World Bank Overview -
UNDP's Open SDG Data Hub -

NDCs and SDGs

Mapping of NDC-SDG Connections -

NDCs, SDGs, and Climate Change

NDC Partnership Dashboard on NDCs and relation to the SDGs and Climate Change Vulnerability -

Emissions Data

Bahrain does not currently have a dynamic online emissions tracking platform, but national emissions reporting can be found within this report -
The ClimateWatch profile may provide one more recent assessment of greenhouse gas emissions -

Sendai and Hyogo Frameworks

Sendai Framework Data Readiness Review Report -
National Progress Report on the Implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action -

National Coordination and Reporting

National Appropriate Mitigation Actions

No Action to date -

National Action Plans

National Strategy for the Environment -

National Strategies Related to International Mechanisms

National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan -

National Regulations/Policies

Economic Vision 2030 -
National Energy Efficiency Action Plan -
Resolution No.1 of 2004 on water supply systems -
Legislative Decree No. 12 of 1980 regulating the use of groundwater -
Legislative Decree No.20 of 2002 on the regulation of fishing, exploitation and protection of marine wealth -
Decree No. 43 of 2005 reorganizing the Public Commission for the Protection of Marine Resources, Environment, and Wildlife -
Law No. 37 of 2014 on regulating the extraction and sale of sea sand -
Legislative Decree No. 19 of 2002 concerning the right of disposal over private state ownership lands -
Legislative Decree No. 21 of 1983 on the protection of palms -

Reviews of National Legislation and Policy

London School of Economics: National Climate Legislation -


Key Areas of Climate Investment

Financing engagement with international climate processes and reporting -
Financing climate resilience in the water sector -
Financing improvements to the water supply process -

Selected Relevant Sources of Climate Related Funding

Climate Funds Update -
OECD Climate Change -
OECD Investment for Green Growth -

Multilateral Funders

Bahrain receives climate funding from the Islamic Development Bank, the Green Climate Fund, and the Global Environment Facility, among others.

Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Planning

Vulnerability/Adaptation Capacity Data

Notre Dame's Global Adaptation Initiative Vulnerability/Readiness Climate Change Index -
Impacts of climate change on the municipal water management system in the Kingdom of Bahrain: Vulnerability assessment and adaptation options -
Environmental Performance Index -

Natural Disaster/Hazards

PreventionWeb -

Energy Supply and Demand

Key Energy Statistics -
Bahrain Renewable Energy Profile -

Land Use

The History of Land use and Development in Bahrain -
Geospatial Technologies and Human Rights Project: Investigating Land Use and Land Cover Change in Bahrain 1987-2013 -

Economic Development/Quality of Life and Livelihoods

Bahrain and FAO -

Summaries of Programming and Priorities

Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment in Bahrain's Second National Communication -

Case Studies

Islamic Development Bank Reports

IsDB Country Page -

Climate, Climate Change, and Environmental Data

Natural Disaster/Hazards Data

ThinkHazard -

Energy Supply and Demand Data

Renewable Energy Mapping -

Land Use Data

FAOStat -

Weather/Meteorological Data

World Meteorological Organization Profile -

<span class="isdb-tag">Desertification</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Food Insecurity</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage/Utilization</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Energy Efficiency</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Water Scarcity</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Hydrometeorological Hazards</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Coastal Management and Planning</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Urban Management and Planning</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Economic Diversification</span> <span class="isdb-tag"> Energy and Extractive Sector </span>

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