Key findings from Bolivia NCAP Project

Submitted by Sukaina Bharwani | published 25th Mar 2011 | last updated 5th Jan 2023

This page describes the key findings from the NCAP Bolivia project. Because of the wealth of findings, the specific results for the Lake Titicaca and Vallegrande regions are presented on different pages (links above and below), and this page then presents synthesised ideas on adaptation strategies at the Municipal level.

Lake Titicaca

Follow this link for findings from the Bolivia NCAP project on the vulnerability of systems of production and human health around Lake Titicaca and perceptions of risk and change.


Follow this link for findings from the Bolivia NCAP project on the vulnerability of systems of production and human health around Vallegrande and perceptions of risk and change.

Adaptation Strategies at the Municipal level


In both study regions water resources are identified as the central theme around which to develop adaptation strategies. Water resource management integrates the identified climate change impacts, particularly in relation to the sustainability of livelihoods (food security). Additionally, production systems adaptation strategies involve land use planning, capacity building and organizational development, while human health adaptation strategies consider the improvement of health services, the prevention of effects caused by environmental degradation/change of human health, awareness creation, and the integration of health policies into other sectoral policies. In general terms, the proposed adaptation strategies for production systems correspond (see figure above).



The proposed adaptation strategies for human health systems involve the following categories (see figure above).

  • Proactive health system management: refers to a preventive epidemiological approach, it is aimed at strengthening the capacity of health centers and networks to successfully cope with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases that are sensitive to climatic variability and change. It also considers research capacity building; epidemiologic monitoring; the introduction of vector transmissible diseases as a presumed diagnosis even if these diseases are not in the traditional epidemiologic profile of the area; and the improvement of private and public housing infrastructure to reduce vulnerability to potential climate change related hazards on human health.
  • Environmental prevention and protection in the health sector: refers to environmental health projects and programs that improve sanitary aspects in all environmental systems.
  • Public participation and organization: refers to a well informed and educated population with the capacity to reduce their vulnerability to climate change effects and better adapt by reducing associated risks and preventing potential impacts on their health.

Moreover, to successfully implement the adaptation strategies, the study suggests incorporating climate change adaptation and risk management programs and projects into municipal government planning. Mechanisms to implement the proposed adaptation strategies include: Annual Operative Plans; Municipal Development Plans; Municipal Land Use Plans; and Municipal Climate Change Programs. Although the project supports the development of these strategies, they have to be implemented through the establishment of programs and projects approved by the Municipal Councils through regulations to be executed by the Municipal Executives. Financial mechanisms and agricultural insurance systems can also serve as mechanisms to implement the proposed strategies.

Finally, the municipal-level adaptation strategies described for each region in the following sections will contribute towards the development of the National Adaptation Plan and the Global Change Strategy under the National Development Plan.


In both study regions there are institutions and associations that focus on building organizational capacity, strengthening the production systems, and improving the management of natural resources. Farmer associations play an important role in the municipalities as they have contributed towards improving the generation and distribution of income from production activities, as well as improving access to technical assistance and new and better markets. Farmer associations are generally associated with support institutions working in the area. In particular, in the Vallegrande region there are several local and international institutions working on different activities supporting the sustainable development of the families in the area.

In the Lake Titicaca region, institutions have not yet adopted adaptation measures to reduce the effects of climatic variability and change, while in the Vallegrande region the combined institutional efforts along with strong demand from farmers have resulted in the construction of numerous water reservoirs that could contribute towards coping with the negative effects of climate change. Also, soil conservation practices implemented in the Vallegrande region could serve as adaptation measures to climate change effects.

Considering the organizational development context in both study regions, some conditions can be identified as key factors for the successful implementation of adaptation measures and for building of adaptive capacity among the local communities: 1) the generation of a proactive vision in the institutions that can create the dynamics that allow for changes and flexibility to adapt to fluctuating market conditions and higher climatic variability; 2) the decentralization of institutions to allow for more autonomous decision-making in relation to the local measures that need to be implemented to cope with climate change effects; 3) the continuity of projects implemented by existing support institutions (in both regions there is institutional supply, but in the Vallegrande region the project continuity is better); and 4) the introduction of market-oriented strategies and an entrepreneurial approach to increase the adaptive capacity of the communities as opposed to the current state/support-dependent character of the communities and farmers.


Next. . .

Back to:

Bolivia NCAP Project

Netherlands Climate Assistance Programme (NCAP)

Methodology of Bolivia NCAP Project

On to:

Bolivia NCAP project: Lake Titicaca findings

Bolivia NCAP project: Vallegrande findings

Lessons learned from Bolivia NCAP Project